By R. L. Kotpal
The booklet has been written to cater for the durable wishes of Indian scholars because it is nearly very unlikely for them to selected any unmarried textbook on vertebrates. it's meant essentially as a textbook for the Honours and the Undergraduate scholars of the Indian Universities. notwithstanding, the scholars of upper sessions, the applicants getting ready for numerous competetive examinations, and the topic lecturers can also locate it invaluable as a convenient consultant for reference. The e-book follows primarily the trend set prior by means of my textbook at the Invertebrates. hence, very important Indian animal varieties were defined first, through chapters on characters, category, different kinds and basic issues of alternative periods of Vertebrates. creation to the Chordates and chapters on Protochordates, Osteology, Embryology and Histology of Vertebrate kinds were prepared in separate SECTIONS to accomplish higher figuring out and to prevent pointless repetitions. issues were chosen with nice care and taken care of in an easy and lucid sort. Characters and classifications were simplified and controversies shunned to learn our younger readers. Illustrations were in particular designed with nice dexterity, correctly, and in conformity with their textual descriptions. it's been my most sensible endeavour to provide greatest details, enough for the scholars, in uncomplicated language, bought after sifting and filtering via a number of overseas textbooks in addition to periodicals and journals.
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Behavior AND three. ALIMENTARY CANALS AND linked GLANDS. four. PHARYNX. five. nutrients AND FEEDING. method. 7. worried SYSTEM). WHAT VERTEBRATES PHYLOGENY OR EVOLUTIONARY CHORDATES as opposed to VERTEBRATES. VERTEBRATES. normal CHARACTERS OF SUBPHYLUM VERTEBRATA. starting place AND ANCESTRY OF VERTEBRATES OF heritage variety OF VERTEBRATES. 1. eleven incidence. organic importance. very important good points. INTERRELATIONSHIPS AND AFFINITIES. class. eleven 1 x 1 Contents 1 ameliorations among basic CHARACTERS. 31 HAGFISHES. AFFINITIES OF CYCLOSTOMATA. PHYLOGENETIC prestige OF CYCLOSTOMATA. CYCLOSTOMES BDElLOSTOMA}. 1 three class. organic SIG,Nn:'1C}~NC:E the 1st JAWED prevalence. vital positive factors. 1 monetary value. 1 HEPTRANCHlAS, basic CHARACTERS. type. different CHONDRICHTHYES . DOGFISHES (SCYUQRHINUS, SQUAWS, SHARKS (RHINCODON. CEfORHINUS, CARCHARODON. CARCHARINUS, HEXANCHUS, MYLIOBATIS. DASYATIS. TORPEDO). AND GUITARFISH (RH1NOBATUS). CHIMAERA). CHIMAERAS CHLAMYDOSELACHUS. 1 fiscal significance. Contents five. basic sixteen UI':O. ''''''''''. CHARACTERS OF SUPERCLASS accent among CHONDRICHTHYES 1:<". " ..... "''''. PARENTAL OSTEICHTHYES. BLADDER beginning OF FINS. MIGRATION TAILS. FISHES. fiscal OF FISHES. 1 UI:.. UO. ""-L CHARACTERS. type. different AMPHIBIA LIMBLESS AMPHIBIANS (lCHTHYOPHlS, URAEOTYPHLOUS, TYPHWNECTES). [II] SALAMANDERS AND NEWTS (ANDRIAS BATRACHUS, CRYPTOBRANCHUS, AMBYSTOMA, TARlCHA TRIWTRlTON, ::: PLETHODON, TRlTURUS, PROTEUS, SIREN). [III] FROGS AND TOADS (ASCAPHUS, ALYTES, BOMBINATOR, XENOPUS, RHACOPHORUS, PIPA, BUFO, RANA HYLA, GOUATH, Contents "n:,,'yn::'MV AND PAEDOGENESIS. PARENTAL CARE IN AMPHIBIA, starting place ANCESTRY OF AMPHIBIA. monetary value OF AMPHIBJA, financial significance, thirteen SUPERSTITIONS. SNAKE VENOM. LOCOMOTION. signs OF SNAKE chew (EFFECTS OF VENOM). listening to, ANTIVENIN (CURE OF SNAKE BITE). FEEDING MECHANISM, FIRST reduction remedy OF SNAKE chunk, POISON equipment, contrast BITING MECHANISM, NON-POISONOUS SNAKES OF INDIA. among toxic AND [ xiii Contents 31 UROPELTlS, normal CHARACTERS. five. LYCODON, type. PTYAS OR ZAMENIS, four. TROPJDONOTUS, DENDROPHlS, 7. DRYOPHlS, different REPTILIA : [I] TURTLES AND TORTOISES TRIPUDlANS, NAJA (DERMOCHELYS. three. PITLESS VIPERS MACROLEMYS, CHELYS, CHELONIA, CHRYSEMYS, TRIONYX, CHELYDRA, KACHUGA,CHELODlNA, 6. CALLOPHlS, MICRURUS). PHRYNOSOMA, four. MABOUIA, five. CHAMELEON, contrast OF 6. HELODERMA, 7. IGUANA, eight. VARANUS, nine. OPHlSAURUS). : A, NON·POISONOUS PIT VIPERS SEA SNAKES (ANCISTRODON, LACHESIS, (HYDROPHIS). 1m] [IV] SNAKES E11t. IV1VfU"l). [II] RHYNCHOCEPHALIA LIZARDS HEMJDACfYLUS, TESTUDO). PYTHON, ERYX). B. toxic SNAKES . I. COBRAS (NAJA adjustments among SNAKES AND LIZARDS. CORAL SNAKES [V] CROCODYLUS, (HEMIBUNGARUS, CROCODILIANS. AND GAViALIS TYPHLOPS 1 starting place OF REPTILES. MESOZOIC REPTILES. EVOLUTION AND ADAPTIVE RADIATION. DINOSAURS. 1 common CHARACTERS. eight. category. (MILVUS, huge INDIAN PARROT universal BIRDS OF INDIA: I. apartment SPARROW (PASSER).